Volume 50, Number 8
August 2021

© Annals, Academy of Medicine, Singapore

Countries around the world are ramping up vaccination efforts with the hope of transitioning from a COVID-19 pandemic state to endemicity. A desired endemic state is characterised by a baseline prevalence of infections with a generally mild disease profile that can be sustainably managed by the healthcare system, together with the resumption of near normalcy in human activities.

A Singapore study examined evidence for a vaccine-driven COVID-19 exit strategy, and discussed how a transition can be made from a pandemic state to an endemic one. It weighed promising data around vaccine efficacy together with uncertainties posed by emergent variants that may evade vaccine immunity.

One suggested calibrated approach is the lifting of non-pharmaceutical interventions in phases while ramping up vaccination coverage, with less restrictions imposed upon vaccinated individuals. This may help to avoid spikes in COVID-19 infection rates, deaths and strain in healthcare capacity, which can derail progress to endemicity.

The treatment conundrum that is idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

Mastitis—inflammation of breast tissue—is a benign, yet potentially debilitating condition that affects women of childbearing age, and its aetiology is usually infectious or autoimmune. Judging...

The therapeutic dilemma of idiopathic granulomatous mastitis

Idiopathic granulomatous mastitis (IGM) is a rare, benign, inflammatory breast condition that can cause repeated abscess or mass formation in bilateral breasts. It has...

A comparison of antenatal prediction models for vaginal birth after caesarean section

INTRODUCTION Caesarean section is one of the most common surgeries in the world. In Singapore, caesarean section rates have risen from 17.8% in 1999...

Singapore’s COVID-19 “circuit breaker” interventions: A description of individual-level adoptions of precautionary behaviours

INTRODUCTION In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, many countries have adopted similar public health measures such as enforced social distancing via lockdowns or universal...

Living with COVID-19: The road ahead

The COVID-19 pandemic has made an unprecedented impact on global morbidity, mortality and healthcare measures to contain the infection.1 Multiple waves of infections in...


Review on Epidemic of Obesity

Rationale for Redefining Obesity in Asians